How To Connect Dm500 With Computer

DM500 is a useful and powerful satellite TV signal receiver produced by Dream Multimedia. DM500 has a LINUX operating system, if we want to expand it usage; we have to connect it to our computer. Connecting DM500 to computer will make the edit of the channel menu according to our demand more easily. It will also reduce a lot of time if we use the RJ 45 ports to rewrite or upgrade the operating system of DM500. Using the serials port will consume 10 minutes while the unshielded twist pair will reduce more than 8 minutes. The links between DM500 and computer will also make the upload of our accounts information possible. So, it is the basic knowledge that all the fans of satellite signal receivers should have.

Before we get to operate the two devices together, we shall know the network settings of Dreambox first. We can get into the network setting interface though the way of Main Menu Settings Advanced Settings Network Settings. We will see the network information of Dreambox in the interface. We have to pay attention to the DHCP settings. If the DHCP is tick marked, it means that DM500 will get the IP automatically. If not, we have to mark the tick ourselves.

There are two ways of connecting the two devices.
1.#Connect though a router. This is the easiest method. If we use a router, we can set a LAN. There will be the method of setting up a LAN in the guide of router. The router will set up a LAN includes DM500 automatically if the option of DHCP is tick marked. The DM500 will get the IP distributed by router automatically and get into LAN. Then the computer can operate on Dreambox though LAN. If you want to upgrade or rewrite the operating system, you have to read the instruction of DM500.
2.#Using the Crossover Ethernet Cable. We can connect Dreambox and computer using the crossover Ethernet cable. The crossover Ethernet cable is not the Ethernet cable we usually use to connect internet. It is sold in shops, but we can also make one by ourselves. When we connect the both, we have to set the network parameters on computer and Dreambox. Now you should not mark the DHCP and set the IP of both devices to 192. 168. 1. 2. Then the both devices are connected.

Contract Guardian Contract Management Software – Offers A Business-class Web Based Solution!

Every business proprietor will agree that contracts are very crucial documents. They comprise the essential details of your companys link with its suppliers, partners, employees and customers and big firms usually have unlimited of them. The more contracts a company has, the tougher its to keep track on how they are performing. Indeed, it is a challenge to recognize where theyre and who has accountability for them. Now, it is time to say bye-bye to mismanaged and misplaced paper contracts, as well as to the risk & lost investments that depart with them. With Contract Guardian contract management software, you can eradicate the ink & paper from the formation, execution and administration of any kind of contractual agreement. Thus no issue where you operate, you will discover it far effortless to more effectively and efficiently:

Administer procurement & sales contract, internal agreements, IP license, etc.

Computerize and speed up the whole contract lifecycle

Regulate & direct contract development

Work together with entire stakeholders

Reinforce contractual, operational and regulatory acquiescence

Visibility, screening and acquiescence are key as far as administering contracts more effectively as concerned. Without proper insight into such things, its tough to administer contractual peril. Contract Guardian contract management software offers a business-class web based solution thats extremely robust & scalable making use of superior technologies. It also provides healthcare contract management software thats flexible and functional enough to assist accomplish a fast ROI (return on investment) that makes the health care industry even more flourishing.

Some other advantages of employing Contract Guardian contract management software are the following:

Significant decrease in effort and time to run contracts

Endless contract kinds and consumer defined field make sure that you can address any contracts now and in the up-coming days.

The searching, filtering reporting and overall admittance of whole data and associated document is truly surprising.

Access anytime, anywhere and any device comprising tablets, Mac or Windows and Smartphone means you always have instant access.

Security is always a critical aspect and truly Contract Guardians contract management software takes contract security with extreme seriousness.

Healthcare contract management:

Healthcare associations experience regulatory and administrative pains & aches in tracking & conforming with contracts as doctors agreement, insurance and NDSs agreement on a frequent on a frequent basis. Contract Guardians contract management software make sure that your most crucial documents are effortless to look for and locate, and they meet the industry rules and apply constant language across the entire fresh contracts.

Software Testing And Ospf

OSPF is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system). It gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network. The topology determines the routing table presented to the Internet Layer which makes routing decisions based solely on the destination IP address found in IP packets. OSPF was designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) or Classless Inter-Doma

OSPF Routers in the same broadcast domain or at each end of a point-to-point telecommunications link form adjacencies when they have detected each other. This detection occurs when a router identifies itself in a hello OSPF protocol packet. This is called a two-way state and is the most basic relationship. The routers in an Ethernet or frame relay network select a designated router (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR) which act as a hub to reduce traffic between routers. OSPF uses both unicast and multicast to send “hello packets” and link state updates.

As a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships in order to exchange routing updates with other routers. The neighbor relationship table is called an adjacency database in OSPF. Provided that OSPF is configured correctly, OSPF forms neighbor relationships only with the routers directly connected to it. In order to form a neighbor relationship between two routers, the interfaces used to form the relationship must be in the same area. An interface can only belong to a single area. (A neighbor state simulation shows how neighbor state changes from Down to Full Adjacency progressively with exchanging Hello, DD, Request, Update, and Ack packets).
An OSPF domain is divided into areas that are labeled with 32-bit area identifiers. The area identifiers are commonly, but not always, written in the dot-decimal notation of an IPv4 address. However, they are not IP addresses and may duplicate, without conflict, any IPv4 address. The area identifiers for IPv6 implementations of OSPF (OSPFv3) also use 32-bit identifiers written in the same notation. While most OSPF implementations will right-justify an area number written in a format other than dotted decimal format (e.g., area 1), it is wise to always use dotted-decimal formats. Most implementations expand area 1 to the area identifier, but some have been known to expand it as
Areas are logical groupings of hosts and networks, including their routers having interfaces connected to any of the included networks. Each area maintains a separate link state database whose information may be summarized towards the rest of the network by the connecting router. Thus, the topology of an area is unknown outside of the area. This reduces the amount of routing traffic between parts of an autonomous system. (An ABR simulation shows how an ABR lets areas know each others network addresses by flooding Summary LSA.)
Several special area types are defined.

Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. We can also say software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast to the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible, meaning it “cannot be touched”.[1] Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associated with computers, such as film, tapes, and records.[2]
Examples of computer software include:

Application software includes end-user applications of computers such as word processors or video games, and ERP software for groups of users.
Middleware controls and co-ordinates distributed systems.
Programming languages define the syntax and semantics of computer programs. For example, many mature banking applications were written in the COBOL language, originally invented in 1959. Newer applications are often written in more modern programming languages.

System software includes operating systems, which govern computing resources. Today[when?] large[quantify] applications running on remote machines such as Websites are considered[by whom?] to be system software, because[citation needed] the end-user interface is generally through a graphical user interface, such as a web browser.

Testware is software for testing hardware or a software package.
Firmware is low-level software often stored on electrically programmable memory devices. Firmware is given its name because it is treated like hardware and run (“executed”) by other software programs.
Shrinkware is the older name given to consumer-purchased software, because it was often sold in retail stores in a shrink-wrapped box.
Device drivers control parts of computers such as disk drives, printers, CD drives, or computer monitors.
Programming tools help conduct computing tasks in any category listed above. For programmers, these could be tools for debugging or reverse engineering older legacy systems in order to check source code compatibility.

Software Testing

software testing training It is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security, and quality of developed computer . Testing is a process of technical investigation, performed on behalf of stakeholders, that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors. Quality is not an absolute; it is value to some person. With that in mind, testing can never completely establish the correctness of arbitrary computer software; testing furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behaviour of the product against a specification. An important point is that software testing should be distinguished from the separate discipline of Software Quality Assurance (SQA), which encompasses all business process areas, not just testing.

Discovering the design defects in software, is equally difficult, for the same reason of complexity. Because software and any digital systems are not continuous, testing boundary values are not sufficient to guarantee correctness. All the possible values need to be tested and verified, but complete testing is infeasible. Exhaustively testing a simple program to add only two integer inputs of 32-bits (yielding 2^64 distinct test cases) would take hundreds of years, even if tests were performed at a rate of thousands per second. Obviously, for a realistic software module, the complexity can be far beyond the example mentioned here. If inputs from the real world are involved, the problem will get worse, because timing and unpredictable environmental effects and human interactions are all possible input parameters under consideration.

Good testing provides measures for all relevant factors. The importance of any particular factor varies from application to application. Any system where human lives are at stake must place extreme emphasis on reliability and integrity. In the typical business system usability and maintainability are the key factors, while for a one-time scientific program neither may be significant. Our testing, to be fully effective, must be geared to measuring each relevant factor and thus forcing quality to become tangible and visible.

Tests with the purpose of validating the product works are named clean tests, or positive tests. The drawbacks are that it can only validate that the software works for the specified test cases. A finite number of tests can not validate that the software works for all situations. On the contrary, only one failed test is sufficient enough to show that the software does not work. Dirty tests, or negative tests, refers to the tests aiming at breaking the software, or showing that it does not work. A piece of software must have sufficient exception handling capabilities to survive a significant level of dirty tests.

A testable design is a design that can be easily validated, falsified and maintained. Because testing is a rigorous effort and requires significant time and cost, design for testability is also an important design rule for software development.

Software reliability has important relations Software testing with many aspects of software, including the structure, and the amount of testing it has been subjected to. Based on an operational profile (an estimate of the relative frequency of use of various inputs to the program, testing can serve as a statistical sampling method to gain failure data for reliability estimation.

Software testing is not mature. It still remains an art, because we still cannot make it a science. We are still using the same testing techniques invented 20-30 years ago, some of which are crafted methods or heuristics rather than good engineering methods. Software testing can be costly, but not testing software is even more expensive, especially in places that human lives are at stake. Solving the software-testing problem is no easier than solving the Turing halting problem. We can never be sure that a piece of software is correct. We can never be sure that the specifications are correct. No verification system can verify every correct program. We can never be certain that a verification system is correct either.

Software testing is an art. Most of the testing methods and practices are not very different from 20 years ago. It is nowhere near maturity, although there are many tools and techniques available to use. Good testing also requires a tester’s creativity, experience and intuition, together with proper techniques.
Testing is more than just debugging. Testing is not only used to locate defects and correct them. It is also used in validation, verification process, and reliability measurement.
Testing is expensive. Automation is a good way to cut down cost and time. Testing efficiency and effectiveness is the criteria for coverage-based testing techniques.
Complete testing is infeasible. Complexity is the root of the problem. At some point, software testing has to be stopped and product has to be shipped. The stopping time can be decided by the trade-off of time and budget. Or if the reliability estimate of the software product meets requirement.
Testing may not be the most effective method to improve software quality. Alternative methods, such as inspection, and clean-room engineering, may be even better.

In a diplomatic context the word protocol refers to a diplomatic document or a rule,guideline etc which guides diplomatic behaviour. Synonyms are procedure and policy.[1] While there is no generally accepted formal definition of “protocol” in computer science, an informal definition, based on the previous, could be “a description of a set of procedures to be followed when communicating”. In computer science the word algorithm is a synonym for the word procedure, so a protocol is to communications what an algorithm is to computations.[1][2]
Communicating systems use well-defined formats for exchanging messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to provoke a defined response of the receiver. A protocol therefore describes the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. A programming language describes the same for computations, so there is a close analogy between protocols and programming languages: protocols are to communications what programming languages are to computations.[2]

Using a layering scheme to structure a document tree.
Diplomatic documents build on each other, thus creating document-trees. The way the sub-documents making up a document-tree are written has an impact on the complexity of the tree. By imposing a development model on the documents, overall readability can be improved and complexity can be reduced.
An effective model to this end is the layering scheme or model. In a layering scheme the documents making up the tree are thought to belong to classes, called layers. The distance of a sub-document to its root-document is called its level. The level of a sub-document determines the class it belongs to. The sub-documents belonging to a class all provide similar functionality and, when form follows function, have similar form.
The communications protocols in use on the Internet are designed to function in very complex and diverse settings, so they tend to be very complex. Unreliable transmission links add to this by making even basic requirements of protocols harder to achieve.
To ease design, communications protocols are also structured using a layering scheme as a basis. Instead of using a single universal protocol to handle all transmission tasks, a set of cooperating protocols fitting the layering scheme is used.[3]

The TCP/IP model or Internet layering scheme and its relation to some common protocols.
The layering scheme in use on the Internet is called the TCP/IP model. The actual protocols are collectively called the Internet protocol suite. The group responsible for this design is called the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Obviously the number of layers of a layering scheme and the way the layers are defined can have a drastic impact on the protocols involved. This is where the analogies come into play for the TCP/IP model, because the designers of TCP/IP employed the same techniques used to conquer the complexity of programming language compilers (design by analogy) in the implementation of its protocols and its layering scheme.[4]
Like diplomatic protocols, communications protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved. To reach agreement a protocol is developed into a technical standard. International standards are developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Protocol testing

protocol testing training Generally, only the simplest protocols are used alone. Most protocols, especially in the context of communications or networking, are layered together into protocol stacks where the various tasks listed above are divided among different protocols in the stack.Whereas the protocol stack denotes a specific combination of protocols that work together, a reference model is a software architecture that lists each layer and the services each should offer. The classic seven-layer reference model is the OSI model, which is used for conceptualizing protocol stacks and peer entities. This reference model also provides an opportunity to teach more general software engineering concepts like hiding, modularity, and delegation of tasks. This model has endured in spite of the demise of many of its protocols (and protocol stacks) originally sanctioned by the ISO.

In the field of telecommunications, a communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation, signaling, authentication and error detection required to send information over a communications channel.protocol testing An example of a simple communications protocol adapted to voice communication is the case of a radio dispatcher talking to mobile stations. Communication protocols for digital computer network communication have features intended to ensure reliable interchange of data over an imperfect communication channel. Communication protocol is basically following certain rules so that the system works properly
The TCP/IP protocol suite establishes the technical foundation of the Internet. (UDP/IP is part of the the family). Development of the TCP/IP was started by DOD projects and now, most protocols in the suite are developed by the industry non-for-profit organization named Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) under the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), an organization initially sponsored by the US government and now an open and autonomous organization. The IAB provides the coordination for the R&D underlying the TCP/IP protocols and guides the evolution of the Internet. The TCP/IP protocols are well documented by the Request For Comments (RFC), which are drafted, discussed, circulated and approved by the IETF committees. All documents are open and free and could be found online in the IETF site listed in the reference.

In computing, a protocol is a set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing endpoints. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behavior of a hardware connection. A protocol is a formal description of message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages.

Common protocols

IP (Internet Protocol)
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Telnet (Telnet Remote Protocol)
SSH (Secure Shell Remote Protocol)
POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3)
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

L2 – L2 protocol testing

L2 – Layer 2

Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocols This is also referred to as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Data Link Layer. It provides the means for synchronizing the bit stream flowing to and from the physical layer and for the detection of errors due to transmission problems e.g. noise and interference. An example of a Data Link protocol would be Ethernet operating on a LAN (Local Area Network).

L3 – Layer 3
This is also referred to as the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Network Layer. It provides the paths for the transfer of data between systems and across networks. The paths between systems may include switched services and interconnections of multiple subnetworks on route. An example of a protocol operating at the network layer would be IP (Internet Protocol).

Network testing

network protocol testing Users and network administrators often have different views of their networks. Often, users who share printers and some servers form a workgroup, which usually means they are in the same geographic location and are on the same LAN. A community of interest has less of a connection of being in a local area, and should be thought of as a set of arbitrarily located users who share a set of servers, and possibly also communicate via peer-to-peer technologies. technologies.

Network administrators see networks from both physical and logical perspectives. The physical perspective involves geographic locations, physical cabling, and the network elements (e.g., routers, bridges and application layer gateways that interconnect the physical media. Logical networks, called, in the TCP/IP architecture, subnets, map onto one or more physical media. For example, a common practice in a campus of buildings is to make a set of LAN cables in each building appear to be a common subnet, using virtual LAN (VLAN) technology.
Both users and administrators will be aware, to varying extents, of the trust and scope characteristics of a network. Network testing Again using TCP/IP architectural terminology, an intranet is a community of interest under private administration usually by an enterprise, and is only accessible by authorized users (e.g. employees).[5] Intranets do not have to be connected to the Internet, but generally have a limited connection. An extranet is an extension of an intranet that allows secure communications to users outside of the intranet (e.g. business partners, customers).[5]

Categories of Testing

1.Unit, System, Regression The Major Categories are

The Component Categories for Network-Enabled Products
Stress and Reliability Tests include
Functional Tests include

2.Load Testing
3.Stress Testing
4.Negative Testing
5.Inopportune Testing
6.Protocol Conformance (Compliance) Testing.
7.Line Speed Testing
8.Performance Testing
9.Robustness (Security) Testing
10.Interoperability Testing
11.Deep-path testing

Modern Computer Networking and its Importance for Business

Computer networking is the connecting of two or more computers that allows them to share resources. It can be done between computers in a home, in a business, across a corporation, and even internationally. It can equally be defined as a method of connecting two or more computer systems together including printers and other devices.

The benefits of networking are considerable, even on a network of only three systems. In computer networking there was never a truer statement than that this is a case of advantages experienced being far greater than the sum of the parts. PC networking is, as a consequence, a rapidly evolving discipline with many exciting opportunities. Challenges that arise in networking and particularly in the Internet tend to be truly global and have the potential to impact upon millions of users.

One huge and growing impact is Internet shopping. Shopping online has grown over the last 10 years to become a huge market, and if a sales business does not today incorporate this technology use they will fall behind their competitors.

But computer networking is also producing much more subtle uses within our societies. For example, Internet technologies can be deployed to favorably condition empathic response in those who have offended against community norms out of a lack of appreciation for the effects that their criminal behavior has on other people. In other words Internet linked devices can track home prisoners to maintain their behavior, in ways that 20 years ago had not even entered the heads of science-fiction writers, to the benefit of society as a whole.

Wireless Internet technology, is the development, also known as WiFi, which is really taking over the way people access the Internet and it has become widely popular in a very short space of time. One reason for this is it allows individuals to access the Internet via a network hot spots, while traveling without the use of cables or wires. In short it releases us from the tyranny of wires and plugs!

Wireless networks are now widely used including Internet-enabled mobile phones with cellular phone networks and, within buildings, wireless networks such as Bluetooth. These are in addition to the site networks used by academic institutions and large businesses. Wireless routers must be configured immediately for security right after you set up your network. It is important to emphasis that wireless can easily also mean insecure unless users are careful to set systems up correctly.

So, do this right away, as soon as you have got the device running. You need to set a new password for the router and limit access to only those computers on your wireless network.

Informally defined “computer networking” is the foundation of the Internet. The Internet itself is easier to understand when defined as the set of users, enterprises,and content providers that are interconnected by Internet Service Providers (ISP).

From an engineering standpoint, and please forgive me for being rather “techie” here; the Internet is the set of subnets, and aggregates of subnets, which share the registered IP address space and exchange information about the reachability of those IP addresses using the Border Gateway Protocol . Computer networks may also be classified according to the network layer at which they operate according to some basic reference models that are considered to be standards in the industry such as the seven layer OSI reference model and the five layer TCP/IP model.

Instructions Of Hootoo Ip Camera Setup And Software Firmware Update

Recently more and more customers have purchased Hootoo IP camera. For some green hand, it requires more to set up this Hootoo IP camera. As a consequence, I prefer to post the Hootoo IP camera setup steps. Hope this will help you while receiving our products.

Step 1: Hardware Instruction.
1. Install the Wi-Fi antenna.
2. Plug the power adaptor into camera.
3. Plug the network cable into camera and router/switch.

Step 2: Software Installation.
Install the follow software:
1. IP Camera Tool: Open the CD, click IPCamSetup.exeNextNextClose.
2. ActiveX: Click Appinstall.exeNextInstallFinish.
After this done, the icon IP Camera Tool will be displayed on desktop.

Step 3: Real-time Video Demonstration.
1. Login:
Double click IP Camera Tool icon on desktop, search the IP address, choose the one of your camera, double click to go to IE login interface.
Default username: admin
Password: no password.
2. Choose the language.
English, Chinese, Spanish, German, Portuguese, French, Italian, Korean optional.
3. Choose the work mode.
IE browser: choose ActiveX mode.
Safari, Firefox, Google browser: Server push mode.
Mobile phone: sign in mobile phone.
4. Sign in.
Click Sign In, then can get video on real-time.

No pictures problem with ActiveX Settings for IE Browser

If use IE browser to connect the camera for the 1st time, maybe there is no image displayed, and there will be a clue to install the ActiveX. In this case, please do the follow steps:
1. Close the firewall of your computer.
2. Change the ActiveX settings, IE browser > Tool > Internet Options > Security> Custom Level > ActiveX control and Plug-ins, all the ActiveX options set to be Enable:
In addition: you can also click start menu->Internet Explorer, choose Internet attributes to enter, or via Control Panel ->Internet Explorer, enter to Security setting.
3. If there is still no image, please close your anti-virus software, and then try step 1 & 2 again.

Wireless Settings
1. Make sure the router is wireless router.
2. Make sure the Wi-Fi antenna installed.
3. Make sure whether there is encryption of the WLAN of router, if there is encryption, keep the key.
4. Login the camera, click Network>Wireless Lan Settings>Scan, please scan 2 times, then you will find the WLAN from the list, choose the one you use.
5. If there is no encryption, just click Submit, if there is encryption, please input the key, then click Submit.
6. Wait about 30 seconds, the camera will reboot, then unplug the network cable.

How to use DDNS
1. Login the camera:
Click Network>DDNS Service Settings.
2. Choose the DDNS, there are 2 options:
Manufacturers DDNS: This domain is provided by manufacturer.
Third Party DDNS: This domain is provided by the 3rd party, such as Dyndns, Oray, 3322 etc.
Third Party DDNS
If you use third party DDNS, please choose the server you use, such as or as below:
You have to register an account firstly, keep the user, password, host, then input it.
Note: Only one DDNS can be chosen, for example, if you use manufacturers DDNS, the 3rd one wont work, if use the 3rd DDNS, the manufacturers one wont work.
3. Change the cameras port.
The default port of camera is 80, please change 80 to any other one you like, such as 81, 100, 8091 etc.
Click OK, the camera will reboot, wait about 30 seconds.
Make sure the Subnet Mask, Gateway, DNS Server is the same as your router.
4. Set Port Forwarding in the router.
This is the most important step. Set port forwarding in router refer to the IP of your camera correctly, then the DDNS will work. Because there are so many kinds of routers from all over the world, so its difficult to show a fix steps, but there are some samples of different routers port forwarding settings as below, just for reference:

(1) Login the router.
(2) Choose Forwarding, select Virtual Servers
(3) Click the Add New button, pop-up below:
Fill the service port (except 80), IP address of the camera, then click Save
The port and IP address should be the same as Camera.

(1) Login the router.
(2) Choose Firewall, select Virtual Servers
(3) Input the port (except 80) and IP address, then click save.
Note: The port and IP address should be the same as Camera.

(1) Login the router.
(2) Choose Advanced, select Virtual Servers
(3) Input the port, IP address, Protocol, then click save.
Note: The public port & private port should be the same as cameras port, choose the protocol to be both.
After all these 4 steps done, then you can use the DDNS freely, check the DDNS status from the camera as below, and get the link of DDNS for internet view.
Step: Login>System>Device Info:

Thanks for your support and attention, for further operation details, please check the full version user manual of our IP Cameras!

Computer Networks Lan, Wan, And Internetwork

It’s probably safe to say that modern business is dependent on electronic communication and computer communication. Ask any person who works in a corporate environment how many e-mails they receive and send in a day or how many times they need to print a document, and the number you will hear will probably be quite large. Thus, one essential thing to have in any modern office is a reliable computer network. A computer network is a group of computers and machines that are linked together through one of a variety of different methods in order to share, transfer, and communicate information.

A computer network typically includes computers, printers, and fax machines, but they can also include any type of machine or device that’s linked in. A slow and unreliable computer network means that the computers and machines cannot communicate, which means that people can’t communicate with each other, which directly translates to poorer work productivity, not to mention frustration and annoyance.

But before you know how to find a reliable computer network or how to improve your existing one, it’s helpful to know about the many different types of networks and their capabilities:

Local Area Network

One type of network is called a LAN (Local Area Network). A LAN is one of the major two types of computer networks and is most likely found in homes or small offices as it covers smaller physical areas than other types of networks. It’s a computer network that typically connects computers to word processors and other office equipment. Although a LAN covers only a limited area, it can connect a large number of computers and electronic equipment. For instance, schools and airports are two types of large, centrally-located organizations that often use a LAN. And the fact that it covers a specific, small geographic area means that the network doesn’t require leased telecommunication lines. Perhaps the most crucial defining characteristic of a LAN is its high data transfer rates. Because the network is serving a limited area, data can move from device to device much more quickly.

Wide Area Network

Essentially the opposite of a local area network is a WAN (Wide Area Network). This type of network is the second major type of computer networks available, and unlike a LAN, a WAN covers a wide geographic area. Whether you need to connect computers across the country or across the globe, a WAN is a good solution. As opposed to a LAN, a WAN is not confined to a network within a specific building. And the most popular type of wide area networks is the Internet. And both the LAN and WAN come with wireless options, meaning that computers and other machines can be connected without using cables.


Internetwork is another category of computer networks that overlaps with both land area networks and wide area networks. Basically, an internetwork uses routing technology to connect two or more different computer networks. In other words, an internetwork connects to LANs or two WANs. An internetwork connects communication between or among public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks. Within the internetwork category, there are three different types of networks: intranet, extranet, and internet. The difference among these networks is dependent on who administers the network and who participates in them.


The intranet uses something called the Internet Protocol (IP) and related tools, including web browsers and file transfer applications. Internet Protocol assures that any packet of information sent from one computer or device arrives at its destination safely and in the same condition when it was sent. IP does this by assigning a unique address, a number, to each device connected to the network. The intranet is controlled by a single administrative entity. The administration’s specific responsibility is to ensure that the network is closed to all unauthorized users and those outside the network. In most cases, the intranet is used within a single organization.


An extranet must have at least one connection to an external network to be considered an extranet. It is a network that only services a single organization, but that usually connects to networks of trusted organizations. For instance, a business organization may allow their network to connect to a network of customers or suppliers. In other terms, the extranet is usually a network that includes extraneous connections from an intranet.


The Internet is the most popular type of internetwork that allows interconnection and intercommunication across worldwide networks. The Internet can connect a variety of different networks, including governmental, academic, public, and private networks. Most people are familiar with this internetwork, as the Internet is the underlying backbone of the World Wide Web. Although this type of internetwork is popular and can be used in businesses, it is can also be the least secure type of network, especially is an organization doesn’t have the right anti-virus software, firewalls, and other necessary precautions.
The above is a simple overview of the most common types of computer networks. There are many other types of networks that could be beneficial to a variety of different organizations. Whether you need to connect computers in a single state or need California computer networking to extend all the way to New York, there are networks designed to meet your specific needs. By knowing about the different types of computer networks, you can better know which one is right for you and your business to help enhance communication and improve efficiency and productivity.

Finding The Best Ip Trace Software

If you havent yet had the need to do an IP trace, its likely only going to be a matter of time. You will find a number of reasons that you might need to trace the location of an IP. Someone could be harassing you and writing untrue things about you online that could affect your personal life or your business. Someone could be launching attacks against your computer. No matter the reason, there will come a time when you need to be able to find the IP address and the location of the person who is committing these acts.

Of course, most people dont know the first thing about doing an IP trace, and they dont even know where to begin. Fortunately, thanks to some of the quality software that is on the market today, you dont have to be a computer guru to be able to track an address and get the justice you deserve. Instead of doing things the hard way, you can simply find a good piece of software now. The software on the market is able to take care of all of the hard work for you. However, it is important that you make sure you are using only top quality software.

The software that you choose for your IP trace should have the ability to trace IP addresses and domains. It should be able to log and record the findings so that you have a record, and it should be able to work simply. You dont need to have software that is going to have a high learning curve to it.

Something else that you will want to look for in the software is a trial period. In many cases, companies will offer a free trial of the software, and this is something that you should certainly use. When you download and install the software, you will be able to see how it works and functions, and make sure that it is something simple enough for you to use. You can test all of the features to determine that its the right product for you.

You might have the temptation to choose a piece of freeware rather than paid software, but this isnt always a good idea. The paid software is generally going to have a higher level of quality, and it will have support in case you need help with it. Take some time to locate the best quality software available.

How To Choose The Right Ip Camera Software

When it comes to IP video surveillance, the IP cameras themselves are only part of the picture. Beyond the physical cameras is the IP camera software you use to monitor and record video. Oftentimes cameras will not come with this software included, and it will be up to you to pick the right software for your needs.
For more details go to: One of the major things to look at when choosing software for your IP camera software is the features included with that camera.

Take some time to think about what exactly you want your software to do. If you want nothing more than for video to be recorded to look at later, then just about any piece of IP software will do. However, if you are looking for something more advanced you will find there are many options. Many pieces of IP camera software come with a variety of features. For example, oftentimes they come with advanced video analytics such as motion detection, object recognition, even facial recognition. The software can then be programmed to do things such as send out notifications or alerts should an intrusion happen via e-mail, text or other signal. Software can also be programmed to only record, for example, upon motion detection.

Make a list of the things you would like your IP camera software to do, and then look for pieces of software that has the features which will make these things happen. This is your first step in choosing the piece of software that is right for your security system.

Like most software these days, it is often possible to download a free demo of IP camera software from a company’s web site.
For can visit to: generally these demos will be limited either in features or in the time you are able to use them. Such demos are an excellent way of getting a taste of exactly what the software is like and what it can do. Gauge the demo software on whether or not it provides the functions you are looking for. Also look at how easy it was to install as well as how easy to use every person is different and will find different pieces of software easier or more difficult to use depending on their own skills and expectations.

Perform tests on all the different features that led you to choose this software in the first place. If all goes well in these tests, most likely you have the right piece of software in your hands. Before making the final purchase, however, you should try to find out more about the company and the software. Look for reviews of the software as well as of the company itself. You might find that even though the software looks good, there might be hidden problems such as poor technical support, or bugs which don’t appear in the system until it has been in use for a little while and are difficult to remove. Reading the opinions of others who have used the software and worked with the company can give you a lot of information on whether or not this is the right piece of IP camera software for you.

Connecting The New Computer To My Server

The server is the computer that will handle the requests for applications, data and also other network services from the other computers that are called as the clients. A relationship between the personal computer and also the server is frequently referred to as the client-server. The advantage of having the server is that the multiple computers may access the similar network and also resources trough the server. You can configure your network settings of the new computer in order to connect to the server. Here is more information for you.

For the first step, you need to configure your security settings of a router by defining your security protocols as good as the IP addresses that you will use by your network. After that, access a graphical-user interface of the router in order to configure your network settings trough the URL supplied in the user manual of the router.

For the second step, you can connect the Ethernet cable to your WAN port of your router and also the other end to a server. The indicator light on your router may illuminate in indicating that the server will be detected.

For the next step, click the “Start” from a system tray that is located at the bottom of a screen on your server. After that, click “My Computer” from an application and also settings menu.

After that, define the resources that will be accessible by the new computer. After that, right click your hard drive and then choose “Sharing and Security” option. Check the “Share this folder” from your network options therefore the computer may access a content of a hard drive on your server.

It is important for you to click the “Start” from a system tray that is located at the bottom of the screen. Click the “Control Panel” from an application and also settings menu. After that, click “Performance and Maintenance” option. Then, click the “System” and click “Computer Name” tab. After that, enter the computer name in order to identify your network.

Click the “Network Connections” from a Control Panel window. After that, right click “Local Area Connection” and also click the “Properties.” Then, enter all IP address for the internal network. The address of the server normally ends in the number one and also looks similar to

You need to connect the Ethernet cable in order to open the WAN port of your router and also the other end to the computer. The indicator light on your router may illuminate in indicating your server is detected.

After that, click the “Start” from your system tray that is located at the bottom of the screen. Click the “Control Panel” from an application and also settings menu. Then, click “Performance and Maintenance” option. Click the “System” and also click “Computer Name” tab. After that, enter your computer name that has applied to the server in previous step.

For the last step, you should restart a server, a router and also the computer. The connection can be activated between the computer and the server